"Temporary Ponds: a natural habitat to be protected!"

Changes in agricultural and livestock practices

> Invasive species

The exotic plants with an invasive nature particularly affect the communities of therophytes in the MTP, thus causing a rapid and sometimes irreversible perturbation. These can appear in the herbaceous cover (Cotula coronopifolia, Carpobrotus edulis) or in the shrub and tree layers (such as the Arundo donax or Acacia sp.).

Some exotic species of animals can colonize the ponds and become a serious threat if these are transformed into permanent water bodies. In the former case, the ponds may be colonized by predating exotic species, such as the red swamp crawfish (Procambarus clarkii), the largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), or the pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus), among others, which feed on the eggs and larvae of amphibians and other invertebrate species, such as the Triops sp.

Exotic animals and plants cause disturbances due to competition and predation behaviours, especially to the typical species of MTP. It is precisely due to the seasonality of water availability that obstructs these species from proliferating in temporary ponds, Hence, it naturally ensures good conditions for maintain pond biodiversity in these particular ecosystems. However, bad management decision may counteract.

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